Acids, Bases and Salts Research

11954219911140919487h0us3s_Sign_danger_corrosive.svg.hiYour job is to prepare a document containing the following information (word / powerpoint).
You have been given your specialty subject which will require extra detail and which you will present to the rest of the class! Aim to be thorough on this topic and include extra info if you can.

  • what is the definition of an acid?
  • what are the formulae of common acids (hydrochloric / sufuric / nitric)?
  • what types of salts do these different acids make?
  • what is a base?
  • what is an alkali?
  • what are the formulae of common alkalis (sodium hydroxide / potassium hydroxide / aqueous ammonia)?
  • describe the reaction of acids with metals
  • describe the reaction of acids with alkalis
  • describe the reactions of acids with bases
  • describe the reactions of acids with carbonates
  • describe the reactions of acids with ammonia

Please post your work below, highlighting your specialist area in the title of your work. Remember the lessons from Journal Club, to  use multiple sources of information, evaluate your sources and cite all sources.

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13 thoughts on “Acids, Bases and Salts Research

    1. Good link to Bronsted Lowry theory of acids and bases. Good use of formatting to get the arrows and charges formatted correctly (not easy on this site) and your sources of information have been cited. Well done.

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  1. Acids, Bases and Salts
    Specialisation
    -What is the definition of an acid?
    -What are the formulae of common acids (hydrochloric / sulfuric / nitric)?

    An acid is a proton donor that releases Hydrogen (H+) ions when it comes into contact with water/ when it is in solution. Acids are before 7 (values 1-6) on the pH (power of Hydrogen scale) as when they dissociate they release Hydrogen ions causing the pH indicator to turn brick-red. They turn blue litmus paper red and can react with bases and metals to form salts. Acids have sharp tastes however some are so sharp they will kill you as they will take in the water from your cells (dehydrates you) which makes them corrosive and deadly to you.

    Hydrochloric Acid-HCl

    HCl > H+ + Cl-

    Nitric Acid-HNO3

    HNO3 > H+ + NO3-

    Sulfuric Acid-H2SO4

    H2SO4 > H+ + HSO4-
    H+ + SO4 2-
    Chloride, Nitrate and Sulfate are the salts these acids make. The strength of the 3 acids is shown here. All of them fully dissociate so they are strong acids but Sulfuric acid H2SO4 dissociates twice so it is extremely strong and dangerous for your skin to come into contact with.

    Bases are aqueous solutions that will neutralize an acid and turn damp red litmus paper blue- the opposite to acids and they also are proton acceptors and Hydroxide (OH-) releasers. An alkali is a solution with a with value above 7 and is a base which is dissolved in water and is often the salt of an Alkali metal.

    Sodium Hydroxide- NaOH
    Potassium Hydroxide- KOH
    Aqueous Ammonia- NH3

    Acid + Metal > Salt + Hydrogen
    Acid + Alkali > Salt + Water
    Acid + Base > Salt + Water
    Acid + Carbonate > Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
    Acid + Ammonia > Ammonium-Acid Name

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    1. A good summary of the acids, their formula and reactions. Good comments on their dissociation and the fact that sulphuric acid produces 2 H+ ions. Be specific about the indicator that turns red as different indicators have different colours. Please remember to cite your sources of information.

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  2. Acids, bases and alkalis

    An acid is something that gives off H+. This is therefore called a proton donor.
    Stronger acids depend on how many hydrogen ions are emitted. Full dissociation is when all of the hydrogen ions are separated whereas partial dissociation is when only some of the hydrogen ions are separate- in an equilibrium reaction. Partial dissociation is weaker acids as less hydrogen ions are emitted.

    Formulas of acids:
    HCL H+ + Cl- Chloride
    H2SO4 2H+ + SO42+ Sulfate
    HNO3 H+ + NO3- Nitrate

    My specialized subject
    Bases are substances that react with acids to form salts. They Are proton acceptors which means they will accept hydrogen ions from an acid. Bases are insoluble.

    An alkali is something that is soluble and will react with acids to neutralize them. Alkalis are Hydroxide ion emitters. They have a pH of 8- 14. 14 are the strongest form of an alkali and 8 are the weakest. An acid will be neutralized by the same strength of an alkali.

    Sodium Hydroxide = NaOH Na+ + OH-
    Pottasium Hydroxide = KOH K+ + OH-
    Ammonium Hydroxide = NH4OH NH4+ + OH-

    Reaction of acids
    • An acid and a metal makes a salt and Hydrogen
    • An acid plus an alkali makes a salt and Water
    • An acid plus a base makes a salt
    • An acid plus a carbonate makes a salt plus Water and Carbon Dioxide
    • An acid plus ammonia makes a salt and water

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    1. Good summary of the topic and extra detail on bases. Good description of dissociation of ions leading to strong and weak catagorisations. Be careful with the upper case L in HCl. Remember to cite your sources.

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  3. Acids, Bases & Alkalis
    Specialist Subjects: -Definition of an acid
    -Formula for common acids

    An acid is a substance which has a pair of protons it can pass onto another molecule in reactions or space to receive two electrons from the reacting molecule. They are most commonly noted for their pH rating of 1 – 6 (below neutral) and their ability to neutralise an alkali by donating a pair of protons to it. The more protons an acid can pass on, the stronger it is. Acids such as CH3COOH (ethanoic acid) are consumable and are defined by their sharp taste in the mouth, this is vinegar.

    Hydrochloric Acid – HCl ← H+ + Cl- Salt Produced – Hydroxide
    Sulfuric Acid – H2SO4 ← 2H- + SO42- Salt Produced – Sulfate
    Nitric Acid – HNO3 ← H+ + NO3- Salt Produced – Nitrate

    A base is something that will react with an acid to produce a salt and water, these will usually neutralise the acid that they react with. An alkali is a molecule with a rating above 7 on the pH scale, this are not neutral and are defined by their ability to be able to pass a hydroxide ion onto what they are reacting with.

    Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH ← Na+ + OH-
    Potassium Hydroxide – KOH ← K+ + OH-
    Aqueous Ammonia – NH4OH ← NH4+ + OH-

    Reactions of Acids
    Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen
    Acid + Alkali → Salt + Water
    Acid + Base → Salt
    Acid + Carbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
    Acid + Ammonia → Salt + Water

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    1. Good summary piece covering all the aspects requested. Good summary of acid reactions at the end. The definition of an acid is a proton donor, not a pair of protons as you describe. Be careful with your terminology. Some of the arrows appear to be backwards. Make sure to cite your sources of information.

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  4. Specialising: Base, alkali and common formula of alkalis
    An acid is a substance that will emit H+ ions into a solution and has a lower pH than 7. An acids strength is determined by how many protons it can emit, for example sulfuric acid (which can emit two hydrogen ions) is a strong acid, while an acid like ethanoic acid is weak as it will not dissociate fully as it is in an equilibrium reaction.
    Hydrochloric acid = HCl Chloride
    Sulfuric acid = H2SO4 Sulfate
    Nitric acid = HNO3 Nitrate

    Specialist subject:

    What is a base?
    A base is a substance that reacts with an acid in a neutralisation reaction. It has a pH of more than 7 and will accept a proton from an acid as they are proton acceptors according to the Bronsted-Lowry theory.

    What is an alkali?
    An alkali is any base that can be dissolved in water and this useful as it allows us to react two solutions (acid + alkali) in order to create a salt and water. It will react with a proton from an acid (which will dissociate) and an OH- ion (which will dissociate) in order to create H2O. In addition, if there was the same number of proton emitters as proton acceptors, it can neutralise a solution.

    What are the formulae of common alkalis (sodium hydroxide / potassium hydroxide / aqueous ammonia)?
    Sodium Hydroxide is NaOH. This is formed from the ions Na+ + OH-.
    Potassium Hydroxide is KOH. This is formed from the ions K+ + OH-.
    Aqueous ammonia (or ammonia hydroxide) is NH4(OH). This can also be written as NH3. This is formed from the ions NH4+ + OH-.

    Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen
    Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water
    Acid + Base = Salt + Water
    Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide
    Acid + Ammonia = Ammonium Salt
    An acid is a substance that will emit H+ ions into a solution and has a lower pH than 7. An acids strength is determined by how many protons it can emit, for example sulfuric acid (which can emit two hydrogen ions) is a strong acid, while an acid like ethanoic acid is weak as it will not dissociate fully as it is in an equilibrium reaction.
    Hydrochloric acid = HCl Chloride
    Sulfuric acid = H2SO4 Sulfate
    Nitric acid = HNO3 Nitrate

    http://study.com/academy/lesson/base-in-chemistry-definition-example-quiz.html
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Acids_and_Bases/Acid
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/ions/acidsbasesrev1.shtml

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  5. Special subject – Describe the reaction of Acids with Alkali

    What is the definition of an acid?
    An acid gives off Hydrogen Atoms and is known as a proton donor or accept a pair of electrons in a reaction.
    They have a pH less than 7 and produce positive ions in solutions.

    Formulas of common acids-

    HCl – H+ (plus) Cl-
    H2SO4 – 2H- (plus) SO42-
    HNO3 – H+ (plus) NO3-

    What are the salts made?
    Hydroxide
    Sulfate
    Nitrate

    What is a base?
    Bases are substances that can react with acids and neutralize them to make a salt and water. They are usually metal oxides or metal hydroxides. They also accept hydrogen atoms.

    What is an alkali?
    An alkali is something that is soluble and neutralizes acid in reactions. Alkalis are Hydroxide ion emitters. They have a pH of above 7 14 are the strongest form of an alkali.

    Formulas of common alkalies-
    Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH –> Na+ + OH-
    Pottasium Hydroxide – KOH –> K+ + OH-
    Ammonium Hydroxide – NH4OH –> NH4+ + OH-

    Reaction of Acids
    Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen
    Acid + Alkali → Salt + Water(****)
    Acid + Base → Salt
    Acid + Carbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
    Acid + Ammonia → Salt + Water

    Special subject
    When the H+ ions from an acid react with the OH- ions from an alkali, a neutralisation reaction occurs to create water.
    Whatever is left over after the water is formed is the remaining salt.
    H+ + OH- = H20
    Example-
    HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
    In general, the pH is moving closer to 7.
    This is neutralisation

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  6. Acids

    An acid is a molecule or other species, which can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions. It also has particular chemical properties such as turning litmus red, neutralizing alkalis, and dissolving some metals. It has a pH below 7, and usually has a sharp, sour taste. [1]

    Hydrochloric Acid- HCl
    Sulfuric Acid- H2SO4
    Nitric Acid- HNO3

    HCL makes a chloride salt, while sulfuric acid makes sulfate and nitric acid makes nitrate.

    A base is an insoluble substance that neutralises acid. It has a pH of above 7, and accepts hydrogen atoms. [2]

    An alkali is a soluble base.

    Sodium Hydroxide- NaOH
    Potassium Hydroxide- KOH
    Aqueous Ammonia- NH3

    Acid + Metal → salt + hydrogen
    Acid + Alkali → salt + water
    Acid + Base → salt + water
    Acid + Carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide
    Acid + Ammonia → ammonium salt

    SPECIALIST SUBJECT…
    When an acid reacts with a metal, salt and hydrogen are produced.
    e.g. Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 `+ H2
    We can test hydrogen is present using a light splint- it will produce a squeaky pop. However, not all acid reactions are the same. If we take the group 2 metals, for example, they all react with HCl to give a colourless solution of metal chloride and bubbles of hydrogen, with reactions getting more vigorous as you move down the group. Reacting them with H2SO4 is more complicated, as calcium, strontium and barium give insoluble sulfates. Finally, with nitric acid, the metals tend to give oxides of nitrogen rather than hydrogen. Even when hydrogen is produced, it is often contaminated with nitrogen oxides. This is because nitrate ions are easily reduced to products like nitrogen monoxide and dioxide. However, acids do not react in the same way with metal oxides or hydroxides. Instead, they produce salt and water. [3]

    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/acid
    http://study.com/academy/lesson/base-in-chemistry-definition-example-quiz.html
    http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/reactacids.html

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  7. What is the definition of an acid?
    What are the formulae of common acids (hydrochloric / sufuric / nitric)?
    What types of salts do these different acids make?
    What is a base?
    What is an alkali?
    What are the formulae of common alkalis (sodium hydroxide / potassium hydroxide / aqueous ammonia)?
    *Describe the reaction of acids with metals*
    Describe the reaction of acids with alkalis
    Describe the reactions of acids with bases
    Describe the reactions of acids with carbonates
    Describe the reactions of acids with ammonia

    An acid is a species that is able to donate a proton to another species or receive an electron from another substance in a reaction. During a reaction, an acid will emit Hydrogen (H+) ion(s) and it will have a pH of less than 7.

    Hydrochloric Acid – HCl – Makes Chloride (Cl) salts in reaction
    Sulfuric Acid – H2SO4 – Makes Sulfate (SO4) salts in reaction
    Nitric Acid – HNO3 – Makes Nitrate (NO3) salts in Reaction

    A base is a substance that will accept the Hydrogen ion from an acid to neutralise and produce a salt and water. (It has a pH value that is greater than 7)

    An alkali is a substance that will neutralise an acid which will produce water and a salt, the same as a base. Also like a base, it will have a pH value of more than 7. Alkalis produce Hydroxide (OH-) ions when reacting in a solution.

    Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH
    Potassium Hydroxide – KOH
    Aqueous Ammonia – NH4OH

    When an acid is reacted with a (reactive) metal, it will produce a salt as well as hydrogen gas (H2)
    e.g. Na + 2HCl —> NaCl2 + H2
    2K + 2HNO3 —> 2KNO3 + H2
    Pb + H2SO4 —> PbSO4 + H2

    When an Acid and an Alkali react together they will produce a salt and water:
    Acid + Alakli —> Salt + Water

    When an Acid reacts with a Base, it also creates a salt and water:
    Acid + Base —> Salt + Water

    When an Acid reacts with an Oxide, it produces a salt and water, again:
    Acid + Oxide —> Salt + Water

    When a Acid reacts with a Carbonate, a Salt, Water and Carbon Dioxide is produced:
    Acid + Carbonate —> Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

    When an Acid reacts with Ammonia, a salt is produced:
    Acid + Ammonia —> Salt

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